Group 16
VICTORIAN HIGH-TECH CHURCH ROOF

The Grade 1 listed neo-French Gothic Church of the Holy Name on Oxford Road was completed in 1871. The innovative church roof used cheap, local materials like hollow terracotta pots to make the structure much lighter. We will use visual methods to explain the high-tech 'pot vault’ church roof and its history to reconnect a dispersed parish community with heritage & memory. Strengthening cultural identity is key to creating sustainable cities, and through this project, communities dispersed during mid C20 housing clearance will be able to reconnect with their heritage which will have positive impact on health, wellbeing, and social engagement.

Xinbo W / Linyu L

- | MEET THE TEAM | -

We are four 5th year MArch students at the Manchester School of Architecture.

Linyu Li (CPU&Ai)
Shitian Lin (CPU&Ai)
Xinbo Wang (&architecture)
Yuehao Wang (Advanced Practice)
Posted 4 Mar 2020 16:01
- | MEET THE COLLABORATOR | -

Collaborator: Jesuits in Britain

The Jesuits, also known as the Society of Jesus, are an international religious order of men within the Catholic Church. Jesuits take vows of poverty, chastity and obedience, and live together in community.

In this EVENT, we will work with them to connect the Holy Name Church with the community. A long time ago, Manchester was a small city. With the growth of the industry, more immigrates settled in Manchester. So, at that time, lots of churches representing different religions were built, which could make people realize a sense of belonging and sublime and improve cultural diversity. However, before 1829, the Catholic Church is illegal, as a small part of Britain's religion. In addition, all Irish people who believe Catholics had no rights, so they needed a Catholic church to give themselves pride and identity and Holly Name church emerged. Holy Name Church is an innovative and unique construction. It was finished quickly by local materials and industrial technology in two years. The church with prefabricated technology reflects the industrial city of Manchester and gives residents the feeling of great pride.

https://www.jesuit.org.uk/
http://www.holyname.info/
Posted 10 Mar 2020 00:11
- l SOCIAL VALUE l-

Holly Name Church locates on the Oxford Road and it mainly services for students from Manchester Metropolitan University,University of Manchester and Royal Northern College of Music.

The social value is that Holly Name Church represents local community, and it is a cultural identity. Long time ago, Manchester was a small city. With the growth of industry, more immigrates settled in Manchester. So, at that time, lots of churches representing different religions were built. However, before 1829, Catholic church is illegal, as a small part of Britain religion. In addition, all Irish people who believe Catholic, had no rights, so they needed a Catholic church to give themselves pride and identity and Holly Name church emerged. Holly Name church is an innovative and unique construction. It was finished quickly by local materials and industrial technology in two years. The church with prefabricated technology reflects the industrial city Manchester and give residents the feeling of great pride. We will mock the construction process to make people realize sense of belonging and sublime by the model of Holly and improve culture diversity.
Posted 12 Mar 2020 08:08
- l HOW TO PRESENT l -

This part is what we will experience and present together after you join us.
1. Model:
·The main form of the model is the section structure model, which directly shows the construction process and shape of the church roof.
·We intend to design a set of model groups in montage's way (layer by layer): from small-scale hexagonal terracotta ‘pots’ to the top section of the whole church; from small single construction material models to various composite construction structures, to the whole roof composite structure.
·Model structural parts can be assembled and disassembled to simulate the real construction process and vividly show the structure of the roof to the visitors.
·The material selection of the model uses the least color and texture to express the building more succinctly and clearly.
2. Booklet:
We may design a smart booklet with the diagram of church roof construction and the development of Victorian church to tell the story and history of the Victorian style in the application of church spaces and appearance. In the booklet, we also introduce what construction points we want to show and how we express the roof structure of the church.
3. Interaction and performance:
·The picture book with folding cards
It's an interesting way to engage people in this Event. In this process, visitors can deeply understand the construction and structure of the church by folding themselves. Also, we could use 3D folding cards to tell the timeline of the history of Victorian buildings. In addition, practical operation and game like experience can make boring content more vivid and fascinating.
·VR/Video
If we can, we will use video or VR technology to show the building process of the church roof. (people like dynamic images, which are more intuitive.)
4. More than ‘pot vault’(if we have more time):
We will think about and design some additional interesting things about the church: whether there is a alternative and better roof structure; how to better repair and maintain; in design, we could try to design or reuse something to improve the existing sanctity and sublime of the church.
Posted 12 Mar 2020 10:16
- l THE HIGH-TECH ROOF l-

Holy Name Church was built for Jesuits in 1869-71 by Joseph Aloysius Hansom, designer of the Hansom Cab. It is in the Victorian Gothic revival style, imitating a 14th century Gothic cathedral – indeed, it is the largest church in Manchester.

By creative use of 19th century technology Hansom’s building was ready in just two years, rather than the decades it took to create similar size churches in medieval times.

Architectural historians have marvelled at the lightness of the slender pillars supporting the half-acre space. This was accomplished by the innovative construction of the vaulted roof from hollow hexagonal terracotta “pots” rather than carved stone which would have been much heavier.


Posted 15 Mar 2020 23:33
- l YOU WILL LEARN l-

For BA students:
Join us, and you will have the opportunity to learn image and video processing software Photoshop, Adobe Illustrator, Indesign, Premiere, and modeling software CAD, REVIT, SketchUp, Rhino.
During these two weeks, we will fully assist you in learning to use this software, which will be very important for your future studies.
Posted 20 Mar 2020 22:21
- l TIMETABLE 01 l-

This week you will have the opportunity to get a complete picture of the project. In addition, you will have the opportunity to visit Victorian architecture and lectures on heritage preservation in preparation for the future!
Posted 21 Mar 2020 20:24
- l TIMETABLE 02 l-

This week we will focus on the project. We make physical models and draw diagrams for the booklet. In the process, we also meet and communicate with collaborators. Your modeling and drawing skills will improve this week. At the end of the EVENT, we will have a small celebration.
Posted 21 Mar 2020 20:28
-l VICTORIAN CHURCH HISTORY 1 I-

GOTHIC REVIVAL
Gothic Revival (also referred to as Victorian Gothic, neo-Gothic, or Gothick) is an architectural movement popular in the Western world that began in the late 1740s in England. Its momentum grew in the early 19th century, when increasingly serious and learned admirers of neo-Gothic styles sought to revive medieval Gothic architecture, in contrast to the neoclassical styles prevalent at the time. Gothic Revival draws features from the original Gothic style, including decorative patterns, finials, lancet windows, hood moulds and label stops.

The Gothic Revival movement emerged in 18th-century England, gaining ground in the 19th. Its roots were intertwined with deeply philosophical movements associated with Catholicism and a re-awakening of high church or Anglo-Catholic belief concerned by the growth of religious nonconformism. Ultimately, the "Anglo-Catholicism" tradition of religious belief and style became known for its intrinsic appeal in the third quarter of the 19th century. Gothic Revival architecture varied considerably in its faithfulness to both the ornamental style and principles of construction of its medieval original, sometimes amounting to little more than pointed window frames and a few touches of Gothic decoration on a building otherwise on a wholly 19th-century plan and using contemporary materials and construction methods.
Posted 23 Mar 2020 17:24
-I VICTORIAN CHURCH HISTORY 2 I-

RESTORATION
The Victorian restoration was the widespread and extensive refurbishment and rebuilding of Church of England churches and cathedrals that took place in England and Wales during the 19th-century reign of Queen Victoria. It was not the same process as is understood today by the term building restoration.

Against a background of poorly maintained church buildings; a reaction against the Puritan ethic manifested in the Gothic Revival; and a shortage of churches where they were needed in cities, the Cambridge Camden Society and the Oxford Movement advocated a return to a more medieval attitude to churchgoing. The change was embraced by the Church of England which saw it as a means of reversing the decline in church attendance.

The principle was to "restore" a church to how it might have looked during the "Decorated" style of architecture which existed between 1260 and 1360, and many famous architects such as George Gilbert Scott and Ewan Christian enthusiastically accepted commissions for restorations. It is estimated that around 80% of all Church of England churches were affected in some way by the movement, varying from minor changes to complete demolition and rebuilding.

Influential people like John Ruskin and William Morris were opposed to such large-scale restoration, and their activities eventually led to the formation of societies dedicated to building preservation, such as the Society for the Protection of Ancient Buildings. In retrospect, the period of Victorian restoration has been viewed in a generally unfavourable light.
Posted 23 Mar 2020 17:28
-I CHURCH ROOF SURVEY I-

1.Introduction
The survey is the on-the-spot investigation about internal church roof with Brendan and architect Mark. We followed architect mark to experience the roof structure ‘pot vault’ of the church, observe and measure the structural details of the roof at zero distance.

2.Process of investigation
We met architect Mark and father Brendan in Manchester universities’ Catholic Chaplaincy at 2pm. We began to visit the church with Mark after he handed out the helmet and told us some precautions. We went from the narrow spiral tower on the side to the inside of the church roof. Connecting the interior of the church roof is the front tower. From a small door of the tower to the interior of the roof which is the focus of our study. Mark explained a lot of structural knowledge points to us. Then he took us to observe the surrounding rooms and make us understand the roof structure of the church as a whole. Finally, we went down to the mezzanine floor of the church hall to measure the overall dimensions and main space of the church.

3.Architect’s guidance and suggestion
Mark talked about the construction process of the facade and the structure of the roof. For example, the structural materials, function and the connection structure between the tower and the main body of the building in the main tower; The stress and function of the triangular truss, the support design of the inclined beam between the trusses and the bonding method of the hollow terracotta on the roof.
Later, Mark explained a lot of structural points and features to us, and then he told us the structural difficulties to pay attention to in the next model making, especially how to present the ‘pot vault’ structure clearly.
Posted 23 Mar 2020 20:46
- I MANUSCRIPT I -

According to the site survey and measurement, we draw a relatively accurate section of the church roof truss structure by hand. Be prepared for the next modeling step.

The revived Gothic style was not limited to architecture. Classical Gothic buildings of the 12th to 16th Centuries were a source of inspiration to 19th-century designers in numerous fields of work. Architectural elements such as pointed arches, steep-sloping roofs and fancy carvings like lace and lattice work were applied to a wide range of Gothic Revival objects. Some examples of Gothic Revivals influence can be found in heraldic motifs in coats of arms, painted furniture with elaborate painted scenes.

In addition, we studied the window style of Gothic church. Through the decorative art of Victorian church, we can get a deeper understanding of the design art and the story behind it.

Posted 23 Mar 2020 21:44
-I GOTHIC STRUCTURE I-

The most common elevation for a Gothic cathedral is that of the architectural form known as the "basilica". This term, used architecturally, does not have any ecclesiastical or spiritual significance such as is associated with Catholic basilicas that have been designated by the pope as a church of great significance, e.g. the Basilica of St Peter, in Rome, or the Basilica of Our Lady of the Rosary at Lourdes.

Architecturally, a basilica is a church that has a longitudinal nave, with a lower aisle on each side, separated by rows of columns or piers, and generally with windows let into that part of the nave that rises above the outer roof of the aisles. This upper section is called the clerestorey. This architectural form is so named because it was commonly used by ancient Roman builders as the structure for secular basilicas used as halls for meetings, markets and as places of justice. Early Christian churches such as Santa Maria Maggiore, Rome, and San Apollinare in Classe have this form, which was adopted by Romanesque builders for their great abbeys and cathedrals, across Europe, such as Durham Cathedral, Saint-Etienne, Caen, and Monreale Cathedral.

During the Gothic period, most cathedrals were built with a single aisle on each side of the nave, such as Salisbury Cathedral, but some had double aisles with the outer lower than the inner, such as Bourges Cathedral. In the South of France cathedrals are sometimes just a single high, wide hall, with tall windows but no aisles, and the lower stage giving a rubust fortified appearance, such as Albi Cathedral. Gothic churches of the Germanic tradition, like St. Stephen of Vienna, often have nave and aisles of similar height, without clerestoreys, and are called Hallenkirche.

Internally, the nave and choir are usually divided horizontally into three stages, the arcade, the triforium gallery and the clerestorey. This arrangement is usual in England where it can be seen at Salisbury, Lincoln, and Ely.

In the Gothic cathedrals and abbey churches of Italy, triforium galleries are most often found in churches influenced by the arhitecture of Normandy, and were used at abbeys of women, as a space for the nuns to attend services. Elsewhere, many churches such as Florence Cathedral and the Abbey Church of Santa Maria Novella, had an interior alavation of two stages, the arcade and clerestorey.

The cross section of the Gothic church. The flying buttress draws the weight of the vaulting outside. It also helps in stabilizing the structure. It also allows the interior walls and piers to be more slender, thus creating more light within the cathedral; more of a feeling of "heaven on Earth".
Posted 23 Mar 2020 23:59
- I INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION I -

- Architecture as a profession is born in the Victorian period

Architecture as a profession is largely a Victorian creation cemented by the formation in 1837 of the Royal Institute of British Architects. Its first president Earl de Grey, designed his own Wrest Park, Bedfordshire in French Baroque style. The role of developer and surveyor becomes distinct freeing architects to experiment with new design and techniques. The designers of many 19th Century houses were anonymous in-house architects working within design houses such as that of Thomas Cubitt. Cubitt himself built large parts of Belgravia and Pimlico in London as well as Osborne House. Those that are remembered are for the higher status projects.

- Victorian industrial architecture riding the crest of the wave

By 1840 the industrial revolution was progressing at full steam. Its profound effect on economy, society and culture are written into the architecture of the time. The scale of the construction boom was vast.
The railways were a high profile exhibition of architectural prowess in scale, innovation of materials and techniques, and in the embellishment and design (see example of our joinery from Liverpool Station).They were also a means of transportation for architectural materials which enabled even larger scale building works. Relaxation of the window tax cleared the way for the use of glazing in building projects. New building materials produced on a mass scale included wrought iron. So we see construction of cathedral like glass houses at Kew Gardens by Decimus Burton and Richard Turner and Crystal Palace, by Joseph Paxton.
Posted 24 Mar 2020 09:16
- I VICTORIAN ARCHITECTURE STYLE I -

Victorian architects instigated a departure from reliance on the rules of classical design. No longer regulated by Georgian principles of Palladian design Victorians designers developed their own styles incorporating a variety of inspirational sources.

The Victorian fashion for Italianate architecture was their response to Classicism. It remained in vogue, particularly in Victorian country house designs until the idle of the century. While other Victorian architects, notably Pugin looked retrospectively and nationalistically for inspiration in the Gothic tradition. Proponents of the Arts and Crafts movement celebrated the artistry of craftsmanship.

Victoria’s reign coincides with the height of the British empire. In Victorian design we see a taste for exoticism with design influences from the orient, Egypt and India introduced into interiors. Thomas’ Cubits Durbar Room at Osborn House provides an example. Architectural styles proliferated outside of England to the USA.

The nature of high status buildings, ones that architects build their reputation around, also changes in the Victorian period. Architects that might previously have earned their reputations on grand houses and private estates turned their attention to public and industrial buildings with the same diligence and attention to moulded details. The architects behind these Victorian high status builds also constructed residential commissions so their designs feature within our joinery collections.
Posted 24 Mar 2020 09:18
- l ROOF MODEL l-

We used Rhino to model the high-tech roof skeleton.
Posted 24 Mar 2020 10:40
- l ROOF MODEL l-

We used Rhino to model the high-tech roof skeleton.
Posted 24 Mar 2020 10:40